After more than four decades of transformational research in neuroscience, molecular biology, epigenetics and genomics, along with parallel advances in the behavioural and social sciences, the time has come for a coordinated effort among policy makers, basic scientists, paediatric and primary care clinicians, social care and child development professionals to develop more effective strategies for addressing the origins of country, social class, racial, and ethnic disparities in health and development. The evidence from many countries is now compelling, as per the following quotes from several studies (sources below):
1 – The 1001 Critical Days Report, 1001 Critical Days, UK Cross-Party Children’s Initiative, 2013
2 – Excessive stress disrupts the architecture of the developing brain – Center on the Developing Child, Jack P. Shonkoff, M.D., Chair of the Center on the Developing Child, Harvard University, 2014.
3 –The impact of stress in pregnancy Professor Vivette Glover, MA, PhD, DSc – Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, 2015.
4 – Prenatal depression effects on the fetus and the newborn, Field et al. Infant Behavior & Development 27, 2004.
5 – The Lifelong Effects of Early Childhood Adversity and Toxic Stress, The American Academy of Pediatrics, Jack P. Shonkoff, Andrew S. Garner, 2012.
6 – The Foundations of Lifelong Health, Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University, 2010.
7 – Healthy Pregnancy and Healthy Children: Opportunities and Challenges for Employers – The Business Case for Promoting Healthy Pregnancy – National Business Group on Health, USA. 2013
8 – The costs of perinatal mental health problems, Report Summary. London School of Economics, 2014.
9 – Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development, Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University Jack P. Shonkoff, 2010
The Pre- and Perinatal Origins of Childhood and Adult Diseases and Personality Disorders Thomas R. Verny 2012
10 – The Heckman Equation, Invest in early childhood development, 2013.
11 – The Economics of Early Childhood Investments – Office of the President of the United States, Council of Economic Advisers, Gov. of USA. 2015
12 – The Heckman Equation, Invest in early childhood development.
13 – The Heckman Equation, Invest in early childhood development.
14 – Building Great Britons Report, Wave Trust, 2015
15 – Building Great Britons Report, Dr Alain Gregoire, Psychiatrist, Chair of the Maternal Mental Health Alliance, 2015
16 – Antenatal maternal anxiety and stress and the neurobehavioural development of the fetus and child, A Review. Bea R.H. Van den Bergh, Eduard J.H. Mulder, Maarten Mennes, Vivette Glover, 2005.
17 – Building Great Britons Report, Dr Susan Pawlby, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London. Antenatal depression and offspring psychopathology: the influence of childhood maltreatment’ British Journal of Psychiatry, 2015.
18 – The Economics of Early Childhood Investments Office of the President of the United States, 2015
19 – More midwives needed to improve maternal and newborn survival, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2013
20 – Continuous support for women during childbirth. Hodnett, E. D., S. Gates, et al. US National Library of Health, Cochrane database of systematic reviews: CD003766, 2012.
21 – Global strategy for infant and young child feeding, World Health Organisation, Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health, 2003